A fuel cell includes a membrane electrode assembly and a first separator. The first separator includes a first reactant gas channel, a first reactant gas manifold, and a first buffer portion. The first buffer portion is located outside of a power generation region of an electrode catalyst layer of the first electrode. The first buffer portion connects the first reactant gas channel to the first reactant gas manifold. A gas diffusion layer of the first electrode extends along a surface of the first separator to a first buffer region facing the first buffer portion. An intermediate layer of the first electrode covers a portion of the gas diffusion layer of the first electrode in the first buffer region.
A fuel cell stack includes a bracket and a boss. The bracket includes an attachment surface. The bracket includes an attachment and detachment hole and an opening hole. The boss includes a bearing surface and a locking surface part. The locking surface part is connected to the bearing surface and protrudes in an outside direction such that at least a part of the locking surface part overlaps with the attachment surface part viewed from an attachment direction when a center of the attachment and detachment hole coincides with a center of the bearing surface.
Bioelectrochemical systems comprising a microbial fuel cell (MFC) or a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) are provided. Either type of system is capable of fermenting insoluble or soluble biomass, with the MFC capable of using a consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) organism to also hydrolyze an insoluble biomass, and an electricigen to produce electricity. In contrast, the MEC relies on electricity input into the system, a fermentative organism and an electricigen to produce fermentative products such as ethanol and 1,3-propanediol from a polyol biomass (e.g., containing glycerol). Related methods are also provided.
An object of the present invention is to provide a membrane-electrode-frame assembly which suppresses reductions in power generation properties due to gas cross leakage of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell, which improves durability of a polymer electrolyte membrane and which exhibits superior productivity. In the membrane-electrode-frame assembly, an unwoven fabric which has two domains each having different pore sizes and which is formed with fibers of PVDF is disposed as a reinforcing membrane in a polymer electrolyte membrane for a polymer electrolyte fuel cell, and a domain having a smaller pore size and protruding from the polymer electrolyte membrane and a frame are formed into an integrated structure by welding, thereby improving a gas sealing capability.
To provide technology that is capable of inhibiting a decrease in starting properties of a pump in a low-temperature environment. A fuel cell system is equipped with a control unit, a fuel cell, and a pump. The control unit acquires the temperature of the fuel cell as a parameter expressing the temperature of the pump while operation of the fuel cell is stopped. The control unit rotates rotation body of the pump when it is detected that the temperature of the pump is a threshold value or less set within a predetermined range lower than the freezing point based on the detected temperature of the fuel cell.
Various embodiments disclosed related to hydrogen-generating compositions for a fuel cell. In various embodiments, the present invention provides a hydrogen-generating composition comprising a hydride and a Lewis acid. Various embodiments provide methods of using a hydrogen fuel cell including generating hydrogen gas using the composition, fuel cell systems including the composition, and methods of making the composition.
A system and method for controlling a fuel cell of a vehicle are provided. The method includes sensing a time point when pressure control is necessary by sensing whether an output of the fuel cell is additionally necessary or whether the fuel cell can be in a dry-out state. In response to sensing that the pressure control is necessary, a required valve opening degree of an air outlet is derived by substituting a target air pressure for a data map. A fuel cell air outlet valve is then adjusted based the derived valve opening degree of the air outlet.
Fuel cell systems, e.g. systems including proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, are engineered to have more than one internal electrical resistance that can change according to temperature. Such changes in internal electrical resistance levels allow rapid heat-up of the fuel cells from low temperatures to an elevated temperature that is optimal for water management and fuel cell operation. The fuel cell systems can include at least one fuel cell and at least one resistor-switch unit electrically connected to the at least one fuel cell. The at least one resistor-switch unit includes a resistor and a switch in which the switch is electrically connected in parallel with the resistor.
Disclosed is a process for the manufacture of a catalyst-coated membrane-seal assembly, including: (i) providing a carrier material; (ii-i) forming a first layer, the first layer being formed by: (a) depositing a first catalyst component onto the carrier material such that the first catalyst component is deposited in discrete regions; (b) drying the first layer; (ii-ii) forming a second layer, the second layer being formed by: (a) depositing a first seal component, such that the first seal component provides a picture frame pattern having a continuous region and void regions, the continuous region including second seal component and the void regions being free from second seal component; (b) depositing a first ionomer component onto the first layer, such that the first ionomer component is deposited in discrete regions; and (c) drying the second layer.
A fuel cell separator, a fuel cell stack having the fuel cell separator, and a reactant gas control method of the fuel cell stack are provided. That is, even when the fuel cell stack operates under the low load operation condition, a reactant gas is supplied to the reactant gas passages of the fuel cell separator, and thus, the length of the passage can be shortened by 50% as compared with the prior art having only one reactant gas passage. Therefore, the reactant gas can be effectively supplied without experiencing pressure loss. Further, in the high load operation of the fuel cell stack, the reactant gas is introduced into the first reactant gas passage of the fuel cell separator and utilized in half of the whole electrode area. Subsequently, the reactant gas is introduced into the second reactant gas passage and utilized in the remaining half of the electrode area. The flow rate of the reactant gas flowing along the passage channels is increased by two times, even when the reactant gas utilizing rate is identical as compared with the reactant gas flow in the low load operation. As a result, the moisture existing in the passage channels can be more effectively discharged and the flooding phenomenon occurring in the high load operation can be prevented. By controlling the reactant gas supply in accordance with an operation condition of the fuel cell stack without experiencing pressure loss and deterioration of the utilizing rate, the flooding phenomenon and concentration polarization phenomenon that occur in the fuel cell stack can be prevented.