Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
The following discussion and analysis provide information that management believes is relevant to an assessment and understanding of our consolidated results of operations and financial condition. This discussion is intended to supplement, and should be read in conjunction with “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” included in our 2021 Annual Report filed on Form 10-K. Unless the context otherwise requires, all references in this section to “Hyzon,” “we,” “us,” and “our” are intended to mean the business and operations of Hyzon Motors Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries following the consummation of the Business Combination and to Legacy Hyzon and its consolidated subsidiaries prior to the Business Combination.
Headquartered in Rochester, New York, with operations in North America, Europe, China, and Australasia, Hyzon provides decarbonized solutions primarily for commercial vehicles market and hydrogen supply infrastructure.
Vehicles and Vehicle Platforms
Our commercial vehicle business is focused primarily on assembling and supplying hydrogen-powered fuel cell electric vehicles (“FCEVs”), including heavy-duty
On-road, our potential customers include shipping and logistics companies and retail customers with large distribution networks, such as grocery retailers, food and beverage companies, waste management companies, and municipality and government agencies around the world. Off-road, our potential customers include mining, material handling and port equipment manufacturers and operators. Initial strategic customer groups often employ a ‘back-to-base’ model where their vehicles return to a central base or depot between operations, thereby allowing operators to have fueling independence as the necessary hydrogen can be produced locally at or proximate to the central base and dispensed at optimally-configured hydrogen refueling stations. Hyzon may expand its range of products and hydrogen solutions as the transportation sector increasingly adopts hydrogen propulsion and investments are made in hydrogen production and related infrastructure in accordance with our expectations.
In addition, we perform integration for rail and aviation customers and plan to expand our integration activities across maritime and other applications in the future. We expect the opportunities in these sectors to continue to expand with the rapid technological advances in hydrogen fuel cells and the increasing investments in hydrogen production, storage and refueling infrastructure around the world.
Fuel and Infrastructure
Our hydrogen supply infrastructure business is focused on building and fostering a clean hydrogen supply ecosystem with leading partners from feedstock through hydrogen production, dispensing and financing. We collaborate with strategic partners on development, construction, operation, and ownership of hydrogen production facilities and refueling stations in each major region of our operations, which we intend to complement our back-to-base model and near-term fleet deployment opportunities.
The COVID-19 pandemic is currently impacting countries, communities, supply chains, and the global financial markets. Governments have imposed laws requiring social distancing, travel restrictions, shutdowns of businesses and quarantines, among others, and these laws may limit our ability to meet with potential customers or partners, or affect the ability of our personnel, suppliers, partners and customers to operate in the ordinary course of business. Although the economy has begun to recover, the severity and duration of the related global economic crisis is not fully known. The COVID-19 pandemic is expected to continue to have residual negative impacts, in particular the supply chain continues to face disruptions. Rebounding demand in key components challenge the supply base and supply chain with short notice and increasing volume levels. The supply constraints include overseas freight congestion causing extended lead times, semiconductor allocation, other raw/component material shortages and supplier staffing challenges.
Our workforce. Employee health and safety is our priority. In response to COVID-19, we established protocols to help protect the health and safety of our workforce. We will continue to stay up-to-date and follow local, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (“CDC”), or World Health Organization (“WHO”) guidelines regarding safe work environment requirements.
While we have experienced some operational challenges, the long-term implications of the COVID-19 pandemic on our workforce, operations and supply chain, as well as demand remain uncertain. These factors may in turn, have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial position, and cash flows.
Key Trends and Uncertainties
We believe that our performance and future success depends on several factors that present significant opportunities for us but also pose risks and challenges, including those discussed below and in the section entitled “Risk Factors” included in our Annual Report filed on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021.
Commercial Launch of Hyzon-branded commercial vehicles and other hydrogen solutions
We reported $0.4 million of revenue from hydrogen fuel cell system sales for the three months ended March 31, 2022; however, our business model has yet to be proven. Prior to full commercialization of our commercial vehicle business at scale, we must complete the construction of required manufacturing facilities and achieve research and development milestones. We must establish and operate facilities capable of producing our hydrogen fuel cell systems or assembling our hydrogen-powered commercial vehicles in appropriate volumes and at competitive costs.
Until we can generate sufficient additional revenue from our commercial vehicle business, we expect to finance our operations through equity and/or debt financing. The amount and timing of our future funding requirements will depend on many factors, including the pace and results of our development efforts. We expect that any delays in the successful completion of our manufacturing facilities, availability of critical parts, and/or validation and testing will impact our ability to generate revenue.
Hydrogen Production & Supply Infrastructure
We continue to develop an end-to-end hydrogen ecosystem delivery model, with a partner-driven approach to design, build, own and operate hydrogen production hubs and downstream dispensing infrastructure expected to provide zero-to-negative carbon intensity hydrogen at below diesel-parity cost structures supporting Hyzon vehicle fleet deployments. We intend to continue forming additional partnerships across the full hydrogen feedstock, production and dispensing value chain in each major region in which we operate, that will be designed to ensure that the hydrogen fuel required is available at the cost and carbon intensity requirements to drive fleet conversions to Hyzon hydrogen FCEVs. Because we have a partner-driven approach, we are naturally reliant upon our partners’ performance in fulfilling the obligations that we depend on for delivery of each segment of that value chain. Additionally, consistent with other construction projects, there are risks related to realized construction cost and schedule that can impact final cost to produce and deliver hydrogen and timing of that delivery, along with the availability of feedstock near our vehicle fleet deployments. We intend to manage these risks by partnering with high quality and high performing partners with a track record of timely delivery and instituting commercial agreements to drive down construction cost and achieve on-time scheduled performance.
Continued Investment in Innovation
We believe that we are the industry-leading hydrogen technology company with the most efficient and reliable fuel cell powertrain technologies and an unmatched product and service offering. Our financial performance will be significantly dependent on our ability to maintain this leading position. We expect to incur substantial and increasing research and
We are continually seeking to expand our customer base; however we depend on a few major customers and we expect this will continue for the next several years. These customers will mostly employ a back-to-base model in the early adoption phase of FCEVs. Vehicles will return to a central “base” between operations, allowing them to refuel onsite and/or nearby, where hydrogen can be produced locally at or proximate to the central base. While we focus on back-to-base or regional customers, we expect to expand our target customer focus to include longer-haul truck and bus segments, additional vehicle classes, stationary power, and incremental mobility applications (e.g., rail, marine, aviation) for customers around the world.
We depend on third parties, including our majority beneficial shareholder and parent company Horizon for supply of key inputs and components for our products, such as fuel cells and automotive parts. We intend to negotiate potential relationships with industry-leading OEMs to supply chassis for our Hyzon-branded vehicles but do not yet have any binding agreements and there is no guarantee that definitive agreements will be reached. Even if we reach such agreements, such suppliers, including Horizon, may be unable to deliver the inputs and components necessary for us to produce our hydrogen-powered commercial vehicles or hydrogen fuel cell systems at prices, volumes, and specifications acceptable to us. If we are unable to source required inputs and other components from third parties on acceptable terms, it could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
Market Trends and Competition
The last ten years have seen the rapid development of alternative energy solutions in the transportation space. We believe this growth will continue to accelerate as increased product offerings, technological developments, reduced costs, additional supporting infrastructure, and increased global focus on climate goals drive broader adoption.
We believe that commercial vehicle operators, one of our initial target markets, will be driven towards hydrogen-powered commercial vehicles predominantly by the need to decarbonize activities, but also by the potential for lower total cost of ownership in comparison to the cost of ownership associated with traditional gasoline and diesel internal combustion engines. Our fuel cell technology can be deployed across a broad range of mobility applications, including on-road, off-road, rail, maritime and aviation.
The competitive landscape for our commercial vehicles ranges from vehicles relying on legacy internal combustion engines, to extended range electric and battery electric engines, to other hydrogen fuel cell and alternative low-to-no carbon emission propulsion vehicles. Competitors include well established vehicle companies already deploying vehicles with internal fuel cell technology and other heavy vehicle companies that have announced their plans to offer fuel cell trucks in the future. We also face competition from other fuel cell manufacturers. We believe that our company is well positioned to capitalize on growth in demand for alternative low-to-no carbon emission propulsion vehicles due to the numerous benefits of hydrogen power, including hydrogen’s abundance and ability to be produced locally and the generally faster refueling times for hydrogen-powered commercial vehicles, as compared to electricity-powered vehicles. However, in order to successfully execute on our business plan, we must continue to innovate and convert successful research and development efforts into differentiated products, including new commercial vehicle models.
Our current and potential competitors have greater financial, technical, manufacturing, marketing and other resources. Our competitors may be able to deploy greater resources to the design, development, manufacturing, distribution, promotion, sales, marketing, and support of their internal combustion, alternative fuel and electric truck programs.
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We operate in a highly regulated industry. The failure to comply with laws or regulations, including but limited to rules and regulations covering vehicle safety, emissions, dealerships, and distributors, could subject us to significant regulatory risk and changing laws and regulations and changing enforcement policies and priorities could adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results. We may be also required to obtain and comply with the terms and conditions of multiple environmental permits, many of which are difficult and costly to obtain and could be subject to legal challenges. We depend on global customers and suppliers, and adverse changes in governmental policy or trade regimes could significantly impact the competitiveness of our products. Changes to applicable tax laws and regulations or exposure to additional income tax liabilities could affect our business and future profitability. See the section entitled “Government Regulations” in our Annual Report filed on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021.
Results of Operations The following table sets forth our historical operating results for the periods indicated (in thousands): Three Months Ended March 31, 2022 2021 $ Change % Change Revenue $ 356 $ - $ 356 N/M Operating expense: Cost of revenue 424 - 424 N/M Research and development 6,212 627 5,585 891 % Selling, general, and administrative 20,470 3,146 17,324 551 % Total operating expenses 27,106 3,773 23,333 618 % Loss from operations (26,750) (3,773) (22,977) 609 % Other income (expense): Change in fair value of private placement warrant liability 1,523 - 1,523 N/M Change in fair value of earnout liability 3,241 - 3,241 N/M Change in fair value of equity securities 12,530 - 12,530 N/M Foreign currency exchange loss and other expense (1,057) (28) (1,029) 3675 % Interest income (expense), net 17 (4,588) 4,605 (100) % Total other income (expense) 16,254 (4,616) 20,870 (452) % Net loss before income taxes (10,496) (8,389) (2,107) 25 % Income tax expense 526 - 526 N/M Net loss $ (11,022) $ (8,389) $ (2,633) 31 % Less: Net loss attributable to noncontrolling interest (1,957) (242) (1,715) 709 % Net loss attributable to Hyzon $ (9,065) $ (8,147) $ (918) 11 %
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Three Months Ended March 31, 2022 and 2021
Hyzon was formed and commenced operations on January 21, 2020. As a result, we have a very limited operating history from inception and limited prior period comparable information available to be presented in this “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations of Hyzon.”
Operating Expenses. Operating expenses for the three months ended March 31, 2022 were $27.1 million compared to $3.8 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021. Operating expenses consist of cost of revenue, research and development expenses and selling, general and administrative expenses.
Cost of Revenue. Cost of revenue includes direct materials, labor costs, allocated overhead costs related to the manufacture of hydrogen FCEVs, fuel cell systems, and estimated warranty costs. Cost of revenue for the three months ended March 31, 2022 was $0.4 million. We did not generate revenue for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and therefore had no cost of revenue for the three months ended March 31, 2021.
Research and Development Expenses. Research and development expenses represent costs incurred to support activities that advance the development of current and next generation hydrogen powered fuel cell systems, the design and development of electric powertrain, and the integration of those systems into various mobility applications. Our research and development expenses consist primarily of employee-related personnel expenses, prototype materials and tooling, design expenses, consulting and contractor costs and an allocated portion of overhead costs.
Research and development expenses were $6.2 million and $0.6 million in the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively. The increase was primarily due to $3.5 million in higher personnel costs in developing our research and development expertise in vehicle design, vehicle software, fuel cell system, and electric powertrain. The remaining increase of $2.1 million was primarily due to the advancing development of current and next generation hydrogen powered fuel cell systems, the design and development of electric powertrain, and the integration of those systems into various mobility applications. We expect research and development expenses to continue to increase significantly going forward as we build out our research facilities and organization.
Selling, General, and Administrative Expenses. Selling expenses consist primarily of employee-related costs for individuals working in our sales and marketing departments, third party commissions, and related outreach activities. General and administrative expenses consist primarily of personnel-related expenses associated with our executive, finance, legal, information technology and human resources functions, as well as professional fees for legal, audit, accounting and other consulting services, and an allocated portion of overhead costs.
Selling, general, and administrative expenses were $20.5 million and $3.1 million in the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively. The increase was primarily due to $5.0 million in higher legal, accounting and consulting fees, $4.5 million in higher salary and related expenses, $2.6 million in higher insurance expense and $1.8 million in higher stock compensation expense. In addition, we incurred additional $2.0 million in IT, rent, travel and other office related expenses to support business growth. We incurred greater selling, general, and administrative expense in the first quarter of 2022 as the Company continues to build out its corporate infrastructure, including accounting, audit, legal, regulatory and tax-related services. The increase in selling, general and administrative costs also resulted from director and officer insurance costs, investor and public relations costs.
Change in Fair Value. Change in fair value represents non-cash gains or losses in estimated fair values of the private placement warrant liability, earnout liability, and investments in equity securities. Private placement warrant and earnout liabilities are remeasured at each balance sheet date. Equity securities are remeasured when there is an observable price adjustment in an orderly transaction for an identical or similar investment in the same issuer. Changes in estimated fair values of private placement warrant liability, earnout liability, and investments in equity securities for the three months ended March 31, 2022, were $1.5 million, $3.2 million, and $12.5 million, respectively. There were no equivalent instruments requiring fair value remeasurement for the three months ended March 31, 2021.
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Interest Income (Expense), net. Interest income was negligible in the three months ended March 31, 2022, compared to interest expense of $4.6 million in the three months ended March 31, 2021. Interest expense relates primarily to the convertible debt issued in February 2021 and is comprised primarily from changes in the fair value of the embedded derivative associated with the automatic conversion provision of the convertible notes. Upon close of the Business Combination in July 2021, the convertible debt and accrued interest converted into shares of common stock of the Company. There was no debt outstanding during the three months ended March 31, 2022.
Income Tax Expense (Benefits). During the three months ended March 31, 2022, the Company recorded a net discrete tax expense of $0.5 million primarily associated with the establishment of a deferred tax liability that is not expected to offset available deferred tax assets. The Company has cumulative net operating losses at the federal and state level and maintains a full valuation allowance against its net deferred tax assets. We had no income tax expense for the three months ended March 31, 2021.
Net Loss Attributable to Non-Controlling Interests. Net loss attributable to non-controlling interests represents results attributable to third parties in our operating subsidiaries. Net loss is generally allocated based on such ownership interests held by third parties with respect to each of these entities.
Net loss attributable to non-controlling interests was $2.0 million and $0.2 million for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively. The change in the comparative periods is the result of increased activities in our Netherlands joint venture and the creation of a joint venture in Foshan, China in October 2021.
Non-GAAP Financial Measures
In addition to our results determined in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”), we believe the following non-GAAP measures are useful in evaluating our operational performance. We use the following non-GAAP financial information to evaluate our ongoing operations and for internal planning and forecasting purposes. We believe that non-GAAP financial information, when taken collectively, may be helpful to investors in assessing our operating performance.
EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA
“EBITDA” is defined as net loss before interest income or expense, income tax expense or benefit, and depreciation and amortization. “Adjusted EBITDA” is defined as EBITDA adjusted for stock-based compensation expense, change in fair value of private placement warrant liability, change in fair value of earnout liability, change in fair value of equity securities and other special items determined by management, if applicable. EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA are intended as supplemental measures of our performance that are neither required by, nor presented in accordance with, U.S. GAAP. We believe that the use of EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA provides an additional tool for investors to use in evaluating ongoing operating results and trends and in comparing our financial measures with those of comparable companies, which may present similar non-GAAP financial measures to investors. However, you should be aware that when evaluating EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA we may incur future expenses similar to those excluded when calculating these measures. In addition, our presentation of these measures should not be construed as an inference that our future results will be unaffected by unusual or non-recurring items. Our computation of Adjusted EBITDA may not be comparable to other similarly titled measures computed by other companies, because all companies may not calculate Adjusted EBITDA in the same fashion.
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