Bioelectrochemical systems comprising a microbial fuel cell (MFC) or a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) are provided. Either type of system is capable of fermenting insoluble or soluble biomass, with the MFC capable of using a consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) organism to also hydrolyze an insoluble biomass, and an electricigen to produce electricity. In contrast, the MEC relies on electricity input into the system, a fermentative organism and an electricigen to produce fermentative products such as ethanol and 1,3-propanediol from a polyol biomass (e.g., containing glycerol). Related methods are also provided.
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